Abstract : The effect of feeding broiler chicks on diets containing different levels of black pepper as natural feed additive on productive performance, carcass characteristics and economical efficiency were studied. A total of one hundred and sixty, one-day old, unsexed (Hubbard) broiler chicks were randomly divided into four experimental groups. Each group was further subdivided into five replicates at the rate of eight chicks per pen in a complete randomized design. The chicks were fed on two basal diets (starter and finisher). The black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) was added to the basal diets at levels (0.0, 0.5, 0.75 and 1%) resulting in four (A,B,C and D) formulae respectively ,with group A serving as control. The experimental diets were fed for 6-weeks duration. Health of the stock and performance parameters was recorded. Dressing, edible giblet (liver, heart and gizzard), commercial cuts percentages (breast, drumstick and thigh) and economical evaluation were calculated. The result indicated group supplemented with (1%) black pepper had significantly (P<0.05) heaviest values for body weight gain, feed intake, dressing, best feed conversion ratio, and commercial cuts percentages (breast, drumstick and thigh). The birds fed on the control group produced significantly (P<0.05) highest abdominal fat percentage. The mortality rate and the percentages of edible giblets (liver, heart and gizzard) were not affected significantly (P>0.05) by the addition of the black pepper on broiler diets. Birds fed on the highest level of black pepper (1%) yielded the highest net profit as compared to other experimental groups.
Safa MA El Tazi
Mukhtar Ahmed Mukhtar
Mohamed H Tabidi
Burgat V. Residues of drugs of veterinary use in food. Rev. Part, 41, 1999, 985-990.
Sahin O, Morishita TY and Zhang G. Campylobacter colonization in poultry, sources of infection modes and transmission. Anim. Health Res. Rev, 3, 2002, 95-105.
Al-Kassie GAM and Witwit NM. A comparative study on diet supplementation with a mixture of herbal plants and dandelion as a source of prebiotics on the performance of broilers. Pakistan Journal. of Nutrition, 9(1), 2010, 67-71.
Hassan MSH, Abo Taleb AM, Wakwak M and Yousef BA. Productive, physiological and immunological effects of using some natural feed additives in Japanese quail diets. Egyptian Poultry Science, J. 27(11), 2007, 557-588.
Moorthy M, Ravikumar S, Viswanathan K. and Edwin SC. Giner, pepper and curry leaf powder as feed additive in broiler diet. Inter. Journal of Poultry Science, 8, 2009, 779-782.
Mahady GB, Pendl SL, Yun GS, Lu ZZ and Stoia A. ginger (Zingiberofficinale) and the gingerols inhibit the growth of Cag A + sstrains of Helicobacter pylori. Anticancer Research, 23, 2008, 3699-3702.
Ferreira SRS, Nikolov ZL, Dorauswamy LK, Meireles MAA and Petenate AJ. Supercritical fluid extraction of black pepper (Piper nigrum) essential oil. J. Supercritical Fluids, 14, 1999, 235-245.
Great HH. Plants and plant extracts for improving animal productivity. Proc. Nutr. Soc, 62, 2003, 279-290.
Khalaf AN, Shakya AK, Al-Othman A, El-Agbar Z and Farah H. Antioxidant activity of some common plants. Turkish Journal of Biology, 32, 2008, 51-55.
Malini T, Arunakaran J, Aruldhas MM and Govindarajulu P. Effect of piperine on the lipid composition and enzymes of the pyruvatemalate cycle in the testis of the rat in vivio. Biochemistry and Molecular Biology International, 47, 1999, 537-545.
Turner and Jack Black pepper and white pepper. http/en, Wikipedia, org/wiki/Black pepper. 2004.
Iqbal Z, Nadeem QK, Khan MN, Akhtar MS and Waraich FN. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Allium sativum, Zingiber officinale, Curcurbitamexicana and Ficusreligiosa. Int. J. Agric. Bio, (3), 2011, 454-457.
NRC (National Research Council) Nutrient requirements of poultry. 9th Rev. ed National Academy Press, Washington, DC. 1994.
AOAC. Official methods of analysis (15th ed). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Inc. Washington, D.C, USA. 1990.
Ellis N. The nutrient composition of Sudanese animal feed. Bulletin 1, Northern and Central Sudan, Central Animal Nutrition Research Laboratory, Kuku Research Centre, Khartoum North, Sudan. 1981.
Steel RGD and Torrie JH. Principles and procedures of statistics. A Biometrical Approach (2th ed.) McGraw Hill Book Company, Ins.NY, USA. 1986.
Hosseini NM. Comparison of using different levels of black pepper with probiotic on performance and serum composition on broilers chickens. J. Basic Appli. Sci. Res, 1(11), 2011, 2425-2428.
Al-Kassie GAM, Mamdooh AM, Al-Nasraw Saba and Ajeena J. Use of black pepper (Piper nigrum) as feed additive in broiler diet. Research Opinions in Animal and Veterinary Science, 1(3), 2011, 169-173.
Al-Kassie GAM, Ghassan Y. Butris, Saba JA and Ajeena J. The potency of feed supplemented mixture of hot red pepper and black pepper on the performance and some hematological blood traits in broiler diet. International Journal of Advanced Biological Research, 2(1), 2012, 53-57.
Herati and Marjuki. Effect of feeding red ginger as phytobiotic on broiler slaughter weight and meat quality. Inter. J. Poult. Sci, 10(12), 2011, 983-986.
Sarica SA, Ciftci E, Demir K, Kiline and Yildirim Y. Use of antibiotic growth promoter and two herbal natural feed additives with and without exogenous enzymes in wheat based broiler diet. S. Afr. J. Anim. Sci, 35, 1995, 61-72.
Yoshikawa MS, Yamagashi K, Kumini H, Matsuda Y, Okuno J and Urakami N. Stomachic principle in a ginger-Anti-ulcer principle, 6-ginge-suflonic acid and three mono Acyl digalactosyglycerols ginger glycolipids A, B and C, from zingiber rhizome originating in Taiwan. Chem. Pharma. Bull. Tokyo, 2, 1994, 226-230.
Ghaedi H, Nasr J, Kheir F, Miri Y and Rahimian Y. Effect of use virginiamycin as probiotic, black pepper extract as phytogenic feed additive on performance of broiler chicks. Jou. Of Agric. Scic, 3(12), 2013, 521-525.
Shahverdi A, Kheiri F, Faghani M, Rahimian Y and Rafiee A. The effect of use red pepper (Capsicum annum L.) and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on performance and hematological parameters of broiler chicks. Euro. J. Zool. Res, 2(6), 2013, 44-48.
All Right Reserved for Sudan University of Science and Technology - 2016